07- Indian Cooking Glossary

Serves: 5



aalu: (also batata) potatoes
aalu: (also batata) potatoes
aalu-bhujia: (also aloo-bhujia) thin, wispy, half-inch noodles of spicy potato and chickpea flour batter
aam: mango
achaar: pickle
achaari: dish cooked with pickling spices
addai: crepe made with dal (legumes)
adrak: fresh ginger
ajwain: carom, lovage, omum or Bishop's weed
akoori: Parsi scrambled egg dish with vegetables, generally corn
amchur: mango powder, made from dried, ground, unripe mango pulp
ammavadai: croquettes made with a fermented mixed dal (legume) batter
ammbi: (also kairi) raw or unripe green mangoes
ammbi-panna: savory cold beverage made with unripe green mangoes
anaardana: pomegranate seeds,
angeethi: (also chulha, sigri) an old-fashioned pail-shaped coal-burning stove, used for everyday Indian home cooking
arbi: (also arvi) taro root, a starchy underground tuber with fuzzy brown skin and white flesh
atta: whole-wheat flour
avial: south Indian yogurt, coconut, and vegetable soup
Ayurveda: the ancient Indian art of natural medicine

baati or baaties: whole-wheat bread rolls from Rajasthan about 1 1/2-inch thick disc-shaped rolls with a slight depression in the center
badi, badiyan, or vadiyan: (also bari, vadi) lentil nuggets made with spicy lentil paste shaped into nuggets and then dried in the sun
bajra: millet
basmati: fragrant long-grain white rice
bathua: lambs quarters, a type of greens
besan: chickpea (garbanzo bean) flour
besan pudhae: pancakes made with chickpea flour
bhagarae-baingan: spicy tamarind-flavored dish from Hyderabad
bhain: (also kamal-kakdi) lotus root
bhaji: vegetables
bhajia or bhajias: chickpea flour and vegetable fritters
bhalla: (plural bhallae) white urad bean (dhulli urad dal) croquettes
bhartha: mashed roasted vegetables cooked with onions and tomatoes, typically made with eggplants and opo (marrow) squash
bhath: cooked rice
bhatmas: (also soyabeans) soybeans
bhatura: (plural bhaturae) deep-fried leavened flatbreads
bhindi: okra
bhujia: see sev
bhunae channae: roasted black chickpeas
bhuna-masala: roasted spices
bhunna: (pronounced bhun-na) to roast
bhurji: scrambled eggs
bhutta: corn-on-the-cob
biryani: (plural biryanis) elaborate layered basmati rice dish with meats or vegetables
boondi: deep-fried chickpea flour batter drops
boti: piece of meat with bone
boti kabaabs: marinated and grilled pieces of bone-in meat
bundh gobhi: cabbage
burfee: (plural burfees) milk fudge

cachumbar: chopped salad
chaach: buttermilk
chaat: a composed dish infused with complex savory, sweet, salty, tangy, and spicy flavors that is usually eaten as a salad or snack.
chaat masala: special savory spice blend
chaat-wallah: person who makes and sells chaat
chai: tea
cham-cham: paneer cheese dessert flavored with saffron and cardamom
chandi ka verk or vark: edible silver leaves used to garnish desserts commonly referred to as verk
channa: (also channae, chholae) chickpeas
chapati: (also phulka) whole-wheat flat bread
char-magaz: mixture of four melon seeds
chaval: rice
chenna: soft paneer cheese
chholia: fresh green chickpeas
chilkae vaali: split dal with the skin on
chillas: savory lentil pancakes
chitree vaalae raajma: whole pinto beans
chori dal: adzuki beans, a brown-red dal a little larger than mung beans

daana: grain, generally referring to the spices anaardana (pomegranate seeds) or daana methi (fenugreek seeds)
daana-methi: (also metharae) fenugreek seeds
dahi ka paneer: yogurt cheese
dal: (plural dais) small and split large beans, lentils, and peas, often categorized as legumes
dalchini: (also darchini) cinnamon
dandal: cauliflower stems
degchi: saucepan
degi-mirch: (also rang vaali mirch) paprika
desi: from the country or from India
dhaba: (plural dhabas) roadside eateries
dhana-jeera: spice mixture of coriander and cumin
dhania: fresh cilantro leaves or coriander seeds
dhansak: "dhan" is dal (legumes) and "sak" is vegetable dhansak is a dish made with dal and vegetables
dhokla: (plural dhoklas) steamed split chickpea cakes
dhulli masoor dal: red lentils
dhulli mung dal: yellow mung beans
dhulli urad dal: white urad beans
Diwali: Indian festival of lights that usually falls in October-November in the Western calendar
dobara-talna: fry a second time, referring to chickpea batter fritters and other snacks
doiyan: small chickpea flour pancakes
dosa: crispy fermented rice and lentil crepe
dum: pot-roast
dum-aalu: pot-roasted potatoes
dum-pukht: special pot-roasted dishes. Traditionally, these dishes were made in a pot that is sealed with a ring of dough and cooked with a hot coal on the lid, for concentrated cooking from heat below and above.

falooda: thin, long, soft noodles (like softened cellophane noodles), served with kulfi ice cream
firni: rice custard

gaajar: carrots
gadhvi: (also lout a) deep S-shaped metal pot traditionally used for making lussi (a yogurt drink)
gajjeraela: carrot halva, a soft-cooked dessert made with grated carrots'
ganth gobi: kohlrabi
garam masala: blend of cinnamon, black cardamom, cloves, and black peppercorns
gattae: steamed chickpea flour bites
gehun ka atta: whole-wheat flour
ghee: clarified butter that is further cooked over low heat until the milk solids turn a rich golden color
ghia: (also lauki) opo or marrow squash pale green, bottle-shaped squash
gobi: cauliflower
gol-guppas: (also paani poories) crispy, hollow, 1-inch puffed balls
gosht: meat, usually referring to lamb or goat
gucchi: (also gucchiyan) morel mushrooms
gujjias: nut- and raisin-filled, crescent-shaped croquettes
gulaab: rose
gulaab jal: rosewater
gulaab jamuns: spongy, reddish-brown milk rolls or balls in fragrant sugar syrup
gur: blocks or pieces of brown, unrefined cane sugar usually referred to by the British-English term "jaggery" gushtaaba: meat balls from Kashmir

handwa: (also haandva) Gujarati quick-bread made with fermented rice and chickpea flour
halva: soft-cooked Indian dessert, made with semolina, vegetables, legumes or nuts
halvai: person who makes Indian sweets and savories
hara: (also hari) green
hari illaichi: green cardamom pods
heeng: (also hing) asafoetida
Hindi: north Indian language also India's national language

iddli: (plural iddlis) steamed rice and lentil cakes
illaichi: cardamom pods and seeds
imli: tamarind
imli-paani: savory cold beverage made with tamarind and water

jaiphul: nutmeg
jalebis: pretzel-shaped Indian sweets of fried fermented batter
jal-jeera: (also jeera-paani) savory cold beverage made with water and dry-roasted cumin seeds
jau: barley
javitri: mace
jeera: (also zeera) cumin
jeera-aalu: cumin potatoes
jhalfraezi: mild restaurant-style mixed vegetable dish with tomatoes and onions
jowar: sorghum
junglee dalchini: wild cinnamon

kaala: black
kaala-jaams: spongy, caramel-colored dried milk balls in sugar syrup "kaala" means black, and is used because the milk balls turn very dark brown
kaala namak: black salt
kaali illaichi: black cardamom pods
kaali mirch: black pepper
kaanji: savory cold beverage made with beet-colored carrots
kaathi kabaabs: grilled meat or chicken or paneer cheese kabaabs rolled in a special roti bread
kabaab: (also kabab, kebab) special grilled or deep-fried finger food
kacchi: raw
kaddu: (also petha) pumpkin or gourd, including butternut and acorn squash
kachauri: (also khasta kachauries) savory deep-fried pastries made with 2- to 3-inch puffed rounds of pastry dough
kadhai: an Indian round-bottomed wok used for deep-frying and cooking
kadhai masala: a spice blend made with coriander, dried mint, fenugreek leaves, pomegranate seeds, used for wok-cooked foods
kadhi: yogurt curry thickened with chickpea flour
kairi: (also ammbt) unripe green mangoes
kakdi: (also tar) Armenian cucumber, thin, long (7 to 9 inches), and pale green
kalaakand: milk fudge made by curdling milk and then cooking it with condensed milk
kalaeji: the liver of any animal
kalonji: also nigella seeds charcoal black, tiny, triangular seeds used in pickles and curries
kamal-kakdi: see bhain
kamrak: (also karambola, carambola) star fruit
karelae: bitter melon or bitter gourd long, light green squash with uneven, bumpy skin
kari: curry, a dish with a sauce
kari patta: (also meethi neem) fresh curry leaves
kasoori methi: dried fenugreek leaves
katori: small (2 1/2- to 3-inch) metal bowl with straight edges, used as a bowl for saucy dishes
keema: ground meat
kesar: saffron
kesari: with saffron
khada masala: whole spices
khameer: leavening agent, such as yeast
khandvi: Gujarati snack, made with chickpea flour
khus-khus: poppy seeds
khasta: flaky
kheer: (plural kheers) milk-based pudding
khichadi: (plural khichadis) soft-cooked rice and lentil dish
khichda: grain and lentil preparation from Hyderabad
khoa: (also khoya, mawa) milk from which all the liquid has been evaporated
kofta: (plural koftas) minced meat, cheese, or vegetable balls, fried or cooked in a sauce
kokum: (also cocum, cocamful) black-brown, dried apricot-like fruit, used as a souring agent, sold as halved pieces, like dried apricots
kootupodi: south Indian curry powder mixture of rice, urad beans, coriander, and fenugreek seeds
kopra: (also copra) dried coconut
korma: nut-based Mughlai curries where the foods are braised in yogurt and cream and fragrant spices
kothmir: fresh cilantro
kulcha: (plural kulchas) baked leavened flour breads
kulfi: Indian ice cream, authentically made by thickening the milk on the stove and freezing it

lachaedar: with layers, referring to layered parantha (griddle-fried breads)
lauki: see ghia
laung: (also lavang) cloves
lobia: black-eyed peas
lucchi: thin, deep-fried breads made with all-purpose flour
lussan: (also lahsoon) fresh garlic
lussi: cold yogurt beverage

macher-jhol: fish curry from Bengal
maha-aushadhi: the biggest medicine reference for Ayurvedic medicine
maharaja: emperor
maida: all-purpose flour
makhani: with butter
makki: corn
makki ki roti: corn flatbread
mal-pudhas: sweet dessert pancakes
manga thoku: south Indian mango pickle
masala: (plural masalas) spice blend
masoor dal: red and green lentils
masala chai: spiced tea
mathri: (plural mathris) deep-fried Indian pastry crackers
mattha: thin, watered-down yogurt dish
medhu-vadai: special doughnut-shaped croquette made with fermented dal batter
meethi neem: curry leaves
methi: fenugreek
mirch: (also mirchz) chiles
mishti: sweet
missi roti: griddle-fried flatbread made with chickpea flour
mooli: radish
moth dal: (pronounced mo-ath) dew beans
mulligatawny: pepper-water a thin, hot South Indian soup flavored with tamarind, chili peppers, mustard seeds, and curry leaves
mung dal: mung beans whole green, green split, and yellow
murgh: chicken
mutter dal: dried green split peas

naan: (plural naans) leavened flour bread made in a tandoor
namak-paarae: (also nimki) savory bite-sized pastry crackers
nargisi koftas: meat balls made with hard-boiled eggs and minced meat
Navratrae: 9 auspicious days of fasting

paani-poories: (also gol-guppas) round, crispy, hollow, 1-inch puffed deep-fried whole-wheat breads, often filled with spicy potatoes and spicy tamarind-mint water
paapad: (also paapads, paapadhs, paapadums) lentil wafers
pachadi: (plural pachadis) yogurt side dish with southern flavors of mustard seeds and curry leaves
pakora: (also pakoras, pakauradha) fritters made with chickpea flour batter and vegetables or meat
panch-phoran: mixture of 5 seeds--mustard, fenugreek, fennel, kalonji, and cumin--collectively known as Bengali 5-Spices
paneer: homemade curdled-milk cheese
papri chaat: composed, savory street salad made with flour chips, potatoes, yogurt, and special sauces
parantha: (plural paranthas) griddle-fried Indian flatbreads
pasandae: (also pasindae) flattened pieces of lamb
pateela: saucepan with a 1/2- to l-inch lip
patta: leaf, as in kari patta (curry leaves) or tej patta (bay leaves)
pav-bhaji: bread and vegetables, a Mumbai (formerly Bombay) dish made with spicy soft-cooked vegetables and served with grilled breads
payasam: milky rice pudding from southern India, flavored with cardamom
payesh: rice pudding from the northeastern state of Bengal, flavored with cinnamon and bay leaves
pedha: (plural pedhae) saffron milk fudge patties
phool-paapadh: sun-dried wafer made with ground rice, then fried
phool-vadis: rice nuggets same as phool-paapad, but shaped as nuggets
poha: pressed rice flakes with ragged edges, used for savory stir-fried and sweet dishes
poori: (also poodht) deep-fried puffed whole-wheat breads
prasaad: consecrated food offerings to God
pudha: (plural pudhae) sweet or savory pancakes
pudina: mint
puliyodarai: (also puliyogore) spicy south Indian tamarind rice
pullao: pilaf a dry-cooked rice dish made with spices and vegetables

raajma: kidney beans
raan: leg of lamb
rabdi: thickened milk pudding
raesham: silk, as in silky kabaabs, long hot-dog shaped kabaabs
ragi: red millet
rai: (also raayt) mustard seeds
raita: (plural raitas) yogurt dish enhanced with vegetables and spices
rajas: kings
raj-bhog: literally, fit for a king a paneer cheese dessert with creamy pistachios and saffron centers, much like liqueur chocolates
Ramzan: (also Ramadan) a Muslim religious month of fasting from sunrise to sunset
ras-malai: sweet paneer cheese patties floating in a thickened milk sauce
rasam: watery, south Indian soup flavored with mustard seeds and curry leaves
rasgulla: (plural rasgullas) steamed paneer cheese balls in fragrant cardamom and rose syrup
rattan: literally, jewels special ingredien in a dish
rava: (also soojt) semolina
roti: (plural rotis) general word for chapati and other griddle-cooked flatbreads
rotli: small roti
ruh-gulaab: rose essence.

saabut: whole
saabut masala gosht: meat cooked with whole spices
saabut masoor: green lentils
saabut mung dal: green mung beans
saabut urad dal: black urad beans
saalan: Hyderabadi (south Indian) tamarind-flavored spicy and hot vegetable curry
saag: cooking greens, or a dish made with cooking greens
sambar: soupy south Indian dish made with split pigeon peas (toor dal)
samosa: (plural samosas) savory stuffed and deep-fried triangular pastries
sandesh: (also sondesh) milk fudge made with soft paneer cheese
santara: mandarin orange
sarson: mustard
sarson ka saag: mustard greens
sarson ka tael: mustard oil
satpura: literally, with 7 layers refers to the layers of samosas (deep-fried filled flaky pastries)
saunf: fennel seeds
seekh: skewer
seekh kabaabs: long, minced-meat or vegetable rolls made on skewers
sev: (also bhujia) crispy savory chickpea flour noodles
sevai or seviyan: Indian vermicelli
sev-poori: pastry canap├ęs topped with a mixture of potatoes, onions, sev noodles, and chutneys
shabdegh: Kashmiri dish with meat and turnips
shah-jeera: (also shahi, siyah jeer a) black cumin seeds considered a more expensive and exotic alternative to cumin seeds
shahi: fit for royalty
shakanjvi: lemonade
shakkar: granular Indian brown sugar made from sugar cane
shrikhand: thickened yogurt mousse, generally flavored with saffron and cardamom
soae: (alsosowa) fresh dill greens
sonth: silky smooth, sweet and sour brown chutney made with tamarind or dried unripe mangoes used in chaats, salads, and finger foods
sookha: (also sookhi) dry
sookhae muttar: dried peas
succha: pure, as in extract or essence
sufaid: white
sufaid mirch: white pepper
sufaid mooli: white-daikon radishes
sund: dried ginger

taang: leg cut of meat used for chicken or lamb
taaza: (also taazi) fresh
talna: to fry
tandoor: barrel-shaped, coal-burning clay oven
tandoori: relating to a tandoor
tandoori phool: marinated and grilled whole cauliflower, traditionally cooked in a tandoor
tangdhi: chicken drumsticks
tarka: (also tadka, bhagarvaghar, chaunk) blend of spices and seasonings fried briefly in hot oil (also called tempering) and used to top dal (legume) and other dishes
tava: concave cast-iron griddle used to make Indian flatbreads
tej patta: (also tejpat, tej patra) bay leaves
thali: large metal tray used for serving foods, as well as a dinner plate usage depends on the size
thandai: chilled milk beverage with almonds, melon seeds, and saffron
tikka: (plural tikkas) marinated and grilled boneless pieces of meat
tikki: (plural tikkis) pan- or deep-fried potato patties
til: sesame (gingelly) seeds
tindora: small summer squash
toor dal: split pigeon peas
tukris: pieces
tulsi: holy basil

ubaalna: to boil
uppma: fluffY, dry-cooked, couscous-like semolina dish
uthapam: rice flour or semolina pancakes

vadae: (also vadai, vadais, vadas) deep-fried, fermented white urad beans (dhulli urad dal) croquettes
vangi-bhaat: south Indian rice with eggplants
vendaka: okra
vindaloo: Goan curry made with vinegar and red chili peppers

xacuti: spicy Goan meat or chicken curry with coconut and many spices

yakhni: meat broth

zaffron: (also kesar) saffron
zeera: (also jeer a) cumin

From "1,000 Indian Recipes." Copyright 2002 by Neelam Batra. Used with permission of the publisher, Wiley Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

This 07- Indian Cooking Glossary recipe is from the 1000 Indian Recipes Cookbook. Download this Cookbook today.

More Recipes from the 1000 Indian Recipes Cookbook:
01- Introduction
02- The Indian Philosophy of Food and Menu Planning
03- Menus
04- Helpful Hints
05- Spices and Herbs Guide
06- Types of Beans, Peas, and Lentils
07- Indian Cooking Glossary
08- Mail and Internet Sources
09- About the Author
__About Rabdi and Khoa
__Baati Rolls
__Basic Parantha Breads
__Buying Leg of Lamb
__Clarified Butter and Indian Clarified Butter
__Crepes and Pancakes
__Curry Powders
__Custards and Mouses
__Dry-Roasting Flours
__Dry-Roasting Nuts and Seeds
__Dry-Roasting Spices
__Fish and Shellfish
__Flavored Deep-Fried Puffed Breads
__Fresh Chopped Salads
__Frying Fritters
__Green Salads
__Griddle-Fried Breads
__Grilling Marinades
__Indian Ice Cream
__Indian Ice Cream Desserts
__Indian Pickles
__Layered Rice Dishes
__Masala Pastes
__Milk Fudge
__Milk-Based Puddings
__Paneer Substitutes
__Pastry Crackers and Puff Pastries
__Potato Patties
__Prasaad Offerings
__Puffed Deep-Fried Breads
__Roasting and Grilling Vegetables, Bell Peppers
__Roasting and Grilling Vegetables, Eggplant
__Savory Bean and Rice Cakes
__Savory Croquettes and Dumplings
__Scrambled Eggs
__Sonth Chutneys
__South Indian Sambar
__Special Grain and Lentil Dishes
__Spice Blends
__Sprouted Beans vs. Bean Sprouts
__Steamed Fermented Rice Cakes
__Storing and Freezing Indian Breads
__Stuffed Fried Pastries
__Stuffings for Parantha Breads
__To Cook Dried Beans, Lentils, and Peas
__To Make a Layered Circle
__To Make a Layered Square Paranthas
__To Make a Layered Triangle Paranthas
__Working with Whole Wheat Dough
__Yogurt Drinks

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